Social psychology – The basics in a table

Goal To investigate norms, social identity, group processes and conflicts.
Typical views of human behavior Human behavior will change in different contexts and situations. Humans are never the same in different contexts.

This means that the term ‘individual’ may not really exist. Only in theory at least.

Famous social psychologist Henri Tajfel (1919 – 1982). Jerome Bruner, also famous for cognitive psychology (1915-). Ulrich Beck (1944-), Anthony Giddens (1938-), Manuel Castells (1942-).
New aspects The effect of changes in society. Sociology (Giddens) is therefore important in newer social psychology.
Famous experiments Stanley Milgram (1933 – 1984) – Research in obedience. Milgram showed that normal people can be persuaded to give other people electric shocks, up to 300 volts! There was no real electric shocks of course. But the participants thought they were giving eletric shocks, and many of them pushed the button. The research is scary because it showes that when people are in relation to an authority, they don’t seem to have the same moral reflection, at least not when they are told to do something evil.

Soloman E. Asch (1907 – 1996) – Research in conformity. Asch showed a group of people three lines with different lengths and then a fourth line which had the same length as one of the three. He then asked “which line has the same lenghts as the fourth one?”. The task was very simple, and any person could give the correct answer. But if he asked the question in a group in which all but one (!) was told to give a wrong answer, the one person would often also give the wrong answer. That’s conformity.

Philip Zimbardo (1933) – Stanford prison experiment. A group of people was divided in two groups: Prisoners and guards. The people adapted to their roles to an extend that Zimbardo didn’t expect. It whent out of controle. The experiment was stopped after six days. The experiment was filmed and can be seen on Googles vidoe here: Stanford Prison Experiment.

Important terms Authority, conformity, group polarisation, deindividuation, audience effect.

Tip: Put this in a PowerPoint presentation with each topic in a slide.

Microsoft word templates birthday invitations – Few steps

Open your Word program

Choose the “Office button” (on top in the left side).

Choose NEW

Then choose Birthday on the list.

As you can see, you can find templates for all sorts of celebrations. The cards in the program are always professional and funny. I think it’s important that you choose a good color printer. This will make it perfect.

God look with the party!

Analysis of Super size me (Morgan Spurlock)

Genre Performative documentary
Themes Irresponsibility of thee food industry, healt, the body, ignorance
Composition In the beginning Spurlock presents his project: To eat McDonald food every day for 30 days. It tries to give the movie suspense by presenting not only the crazy project but also the three doctors who are going to monitor his health during the period.

Through the movie we see interviews with diffent people: Children that can’t recognize a picture of Jesus and G. Washinton, but it’s very easy for them to recognize the McDonald’s clown Ronald McDonald.

This documentary gives more and more suspense during the action. Spurlock is getting more and more sick, and in the end the 30 days period is over, and he can live normally again.

Study questions and Discussion about A doll’s house

Act 1

Why does the play begin with a detailed description of their home?

It shows their socioeconomic status and the description is also useful because this is a drama that is used in the theatre.

How would you describe the relation between Helmer and Nora?

Nora is “doll-like”. Helmer has the power and likes to control her. It is clear that the author, Ibsen, doesn’t like this relationship.

Nora has small secrets. Ibsen tries to give the reader (viewer) the feeling that Nora is hiding something more important. In the beginning her secrets seem to be unimportant. Let’s look at one example in the beginning:

“Helmer (wagging his finger at her). Hasn’t Miss Sweet Tooth
been breaking rules in town today?
Nora. No; what makes you think that?
Helmer. Hasn’t she paid a visit to the confectioner’s?
Nora. No, I assure you, Torvald—”

Ibsen later shows that her secrets a bigger: She didn’t tell Helmer that she borrowed money. And of course she didn’t tell that she is in love with Dr. Rank.

Who is Linde, and why is she visiting Nora?

Linde is an old friend. She needs a job. She knows that Helmer can help because he is going to get a leader position.

Later in the play we find out that Linde and Krogstad have known each other earlier and they were in love. But Linde didn’t choose Krogstad because he was too poor. Line had a good reason to choose a richer man: She had to be able to help her sick mother and two younger brothers:

This is from a conversation early in the play:

“Nora: You mustn’t be angry with me.
Tell me, is it really true that you did not love your husband?
Why did you marry him?
Mrs. Linde. My mother was alive then, and was bedridden
and helpless, and I had to provide for my two younger brothers;
so I did not think I was justified in refusing his offer.”

Linde also gives this explanation to Krogstad later in the play.

It is also interesting to notice Nora’s questions: “is it really true that you did not love your husband?” and “Why did you marry him?” – This interest is of course a reflection of Nora’s own life.

Why does Nora pretend that she doesn’t know Krogstad?

She borrowed some money from him (to be able to pay for a trip to Italy that saved Helmer’s life).

Act 3

Where is Nora going in the end of the play?

The ending is ambiguous. We don’t know for shure where she’s going.

When Nora says to Helmer that she’s going to leave him, Helmer asks “Where would you go?”, and she says “Maybe I could go to mrs Linde”.

But it’s clear that Nora has feelings for Dr. Rank who is going to die soon. So maybe Nora is going to visit him before he dies.

I strongly recommend these pages about “A Doll’s House”:
Norwegian page about the play – National Library of Norway

Psycho – Hitchcock – Analysis

Genre Suspense
Horror

Themes The double mind, Evil, Women, Mother and son, Hatred, Love, and power, Gender, Mental illnes.

Symbols Many of the scenes have a symbolic meaning.

1) For instance when Norman is talking about his birds, we see how some of them are pointed towards Marion. This gives the viewer an unconscious feeling of horror.

2) In the scene where Norman brings the dinner you can see a reflection of Norman in the glas. This is a symbol of his double nature: He is mix between himself and the dead mother. You may also find that other elements in this scene tells us that something is very wrong.

We also see Marion’s reflection in mirrors in the movie.

3) There is also a close up filming of Norman. One part of his face is sort of in a shadow and the other part is lighter. This also shows his double nature.

4) If you notice the pictures with Marion and other men (the lover and the cob), you can see that the woman sometimes appears to be very small. This is a symbol of the fifties view on gender.

Freudian interpretation In af Freudian perspective Norman’s house could be a symbol of Freud’s model of personality. The house has three floors: The top is the super ego, the middle the ego and the basement the id.

The relationship between Norman and his mother and her second man can also be interpreted in the view of Freuds psychoanalysis.

The use of irony In some of the words you can find a touch of irony.

The cob says this to Marion:
“There are plenty of motels in this area. I mean, just to be safe.”
This is irony because the motel later appears to be very unsafe for her. It kills her.

When Noram comes to Marion after the quarrel with his mother he says that his mother ‘isn’t quite herself today’.
This part also seems a little funny because the person has a split personality.

Info Directed by Alfred Hitchcock in 1960, the movie takes place in the fifties.

The world famous shower scene lasts 45 seconds. It took one week to film it and 72 camera positions.

Myths about the film One myth says that Hitchcock didn’t tell the woman in the shower, Leigh, that her character was going to be murdered. According to the myth this made the fear more real.

Another myth says that Hitchcock used ice cold water in the shower scene to make Leigh scream. This is not true, because Leigh denied it again and agian.

A doll’s house – Summary and Analysis

Act 1

Nora comes home with a christmas tree. Her husband, Helmer, blames her for spending too much money. But Nora reminds Helmer that his new position in the bank will give them more money the following year. In this part we see how Helmer controles his wife. He has the money, and Nora acts like a little doll (hence the title).

[You should also see this article: Study questions and Discussion about A doll’s house]

After this Mrs. Linde comes to Nora because she needs a job. She has heard about Helmer’s new leader position, and believes that Helmer can give her a job. In their conversation Nora tells Linde that she saved Helmers life when they were younger: Helmer was sick, and the doctor told Nora that he could only be cured if he could live in a warm country for a year. Nora borrowed money to pay for a travel to Italy that saved Helmers life (Helmer didn’t know that Nora borrowed the money). But the question is: Where did Nora really get the money? This will be clear later in the story.

After this Krogstad (a worker in the bank) comes. He knows that if they give mrs. Linde the job, he will loose his. Krogstad says to Nora that she must make shure that Helmer doesn’t fire him. If she doesn’t, Krogstad will reveal that Nora borrowed the money from him and she signed the papers with a falls signature.

Act 2

Nora is worried. She needs to do something about the threat from Krogstad.

Dr. Rank comes in. He is and old friend, but later it becomes clear that Nora and Rank have feelings for each other. Dr. Rank tells Nora that he is sick, and he thinks that he’s going to die.

Later Nora asks Helmer not to fire Krogstad. But Helmer doesn’t care.

In this act it becomes clear that Nora and dr. Rank have feelings for each other.

Krogstad comes back and tells Nora that he’s going to tell Helmer about the secret. Krogstad want’s to be the leader in the bank. And if he doesn’t get this power, he will tell the world about Nora’s secret.

Act 3

Krogstad and mrs. Linde used to know each other. The where in love, but Linde rejected Krogstad because she needed a man whith money (someone who could support her and her helpless mother and younger brothers). But Linde says that they can live together now. Therefore Krogstad says that he doesn’t want to bother Nora anymore. But Linde believes that Nora must tell her husband the truth.

Dr. Rank comes in and tells Nora that he is going to die soon.

In the end Nora understands that Helmer wasn’t ready to help her at all. And therefore (and also because she believes that there was no love in the marriage) she leaves him and the children. She want’s to find herself.

Themes

The relation between men and women
Subjection of women
Male domination

It is clear that Henrik Ibsen i against the subjection of women. The play is from 1879 – ten years after John Stuart Mill’s book The subjection of women. It is also clear that Ibsen has some of the opinions that we see in Mill’s book, e.g. the opinion about marriage.

Love (True love vs. “false love”)
Independence
Money and power
Old love
Vanity
Honor

Symbols

The black cross – Symbolizes death.
Nora dancing uncontrollably while Helmer plays piano – Symbolizes that she doesn’t want to be controlled any more.

Genre

Drama

Author

Henrik Ibsen, a norwegian writer who lived from 1828 to 1906.

Context

The story A doll’s house was written in 1879. Around this time many scandinavian authors (especially Henrik Ibsen) were inspired by Georg Brandes, an intellectual who believed that the art should show some of the problems in society: The subjection of women, poverty, power etc.

In this time the story A doll’s house was shocking to some people. Especially because the woman Nora leaves her husband and children.

[You should also see this article: Study questions and Discussion about A doll’s house]